Research Group of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party of China: Research Report on "Building a Modern Energy System and Promoting Carbon Peak and Carbon Neutralization as a Whole"

Research Report on "Building a Modern Energy System and Promoting Carbon Peak and Carbon Neutralization as a Whole"
—— Research Group of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party of China——
The research team of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party of China is led by Wan Gang, Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party, Chairman of the Chinese Association for Science and Technology, Jiang Zuojun, Standing Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Jiang Zuojun, Member of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Vice Chairman of the Overseas Chinese Committee, Cao Hongming, Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party. The main members are Xu Xiaolan, Lu Guoyi, Zheng Yelu, Xu Guangwen, Gao Jixi, Nan Yin, Cao Xiaozhong, Gao Gaofeng Lin Weiran, Bai Yu, Hu Desheng, Wu Mengqiang, etc. The Zhigong Party Central Committee also entrusted Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Guangdong, Fujian, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Shandong, Liaoning, Hunan, Hainan, Guizhou, Hubei, Shaanxi, Henan, Jiangxi and other local organizations to carry out the entrusted research, which is included in this research report. Author of the report: Zhigong Party Central Department of Political Affairs.
In promoting the "dual carbon" strategy, the energy issue has always been a fundamental major issue. Through research, it is believed that to achieve the "dual carbon" goal, we need to further promote the energy revolution, scientific and technological revolution and economic transformation, gradually transform the energy system dominated by fossil energy (such as coal, oil and gas) into a modern energy system dominated by non fossil energy (such as nuclear energy, renewable energy, etc.). At present, the biggest problem faced by the modern energy system is that under the existing technical conditions and institutional arrangements, there is a certain contradiction between the clean, low-carbon, security, economy and sustainability of the energy system. Therefore, from six aspects of deepening the reform of energy supply side, promoting the transformation of energy demand side, enhancing the efficiency of energy circulation, promoting the reform of modern energy power market system, strengthening the support of energy science and technology, and strengthening international cooperation in high-level energy, the development goals, development cores and development paths of building a modern energy system are proposed.
Key words: modern energy system; peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality Supply side; Demand side; Electricity market; international co-operation
CLC No.: F206; TK-9 document identification code: A
The ultimate goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization is to meet the needs of people's better production and living environment and high-quality economic and social development. Therefore, to achieve the goal of "double carbon" is not only a problem of "carbon reduction", but more importantly, a problem of "development" and a problem of development transformation. It is necessary to achieve peak carbon neutralization in high-quality development. The energy issue has always been a fundamental and important issue in high-quality development.
In order to deeply understand the current situation, trend and outstanding problems of building a modern energy system at home and abroad, and promote carbon peak and carbon neutralization as a whole, from March to May 2022, under the entrustment of the CPC Central Committee, Wan Gang, Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party, Chairman of the Chinese Association for Science and Technology, Jiang Zuojun, Standing Committee Member and Deputy Secretary General of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Standing Vice Chairman of the Zhigong Party Central Committee, and Vice Chairman of the National People's Congress and Overseas Chinese Committee, Cao Hongming, Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party, led the Central Research Group of the Zhigong Party to carry out three field surveys in Beijing and one online survey in Guangdong on the theme of "building a modern energy system, and promoting carbon peak and carbon neutralization as a whole", held seven symposiums, and entrusted 21 local organizations to carry out research. At the same time, it also absorbed the opinions and suggestions of overseas Chinese experts. Through comparative research and research, analyze the development trend of the global energy system and the respective development of traditional energy and clean energy in China's existing energy system, and in combination with achieving the goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization, provide advice and suggestions for building a modern energy system. The relevant information is reported as follows:
1 Achieving carbon peak and carbon neutralization requires building a modern energy system
To achieve the goal of "double carbon", we need to further promote the energy revolution, scientific and technological revolution and economic transformation, and gradually transform the energy system dominated by fossil energy (such as coal, oil and gas) established since the industrial revolution into a modern energy system dominated by non fossil energy (such as nuclear energy, renewable energy, etc.).
Through comparative study, we find that from a global perspective, carbon dioxide emissions mainly come from fossil fuel combustion. In 2020, energy related carbon dioxide emissions will account for 87% of the total global carbon dioxide emissions. At present, most developed economies have decoupled their GDP growth from energy consumption, and their CO2 emissions have reached a peak and are moving towards carbon neutrality, while most developing countries' CO2 emissions are still growing. The differences in resource endowments and technological advantages determine that countries in the world have different low-carbon transformation paths, but the overall trend is "reducing coal, stabilizing oil, increasing gas, and vigorously developing renewable energy". The increasing proportion of clean energy is the requirement for achieving the "double carbon" goal. When the carbon reaches its peak, the proportion of clean energy in the United States, Japan, Italy, France and other countries is close to or more than 50%.
Through research, we can see that:
1. Influenced by objective factors such as heavy industrial structure, coal oriented energy structure, difficult replacement of emerging industries in the short term, and rigid growth of domestic energy consumption, China's energy consumption per unit GDP and carbon emissions are higher than the global average. Energy consumption is mainly concentrated in the secondary industry, accounting for about 70% of the total energy consumption. The economy is highly dependent on energy consumption. In 2020, the energy consumption per unit GDP will be 3.4 tons of standard coal/10000 US dollars, 1.5 times the global average and 2-4 times that of major developed countries; The carbon dioxide emission per unit GDP is 6.7 tons/10000 US dollars, 1.8 times the global average, and 3-6 times that of major developed countries. The consumption structure of partial coal, low energy efficiency and China's resource endowment of rich coal and short of oil and gas in fossil energy have become major challenges for China's low-carbon energy transformation.
2. The abundant coal, insufficient oil and gas resources endowments determine that China's current energy system based on fossil energy will face the risk of "failure to stand", "failure to get" and "failure to return". Especially in recent years, the long arm jurisdiction of the United States, the sharp decline of China's overseas oil and gas cooperation projects, and the resource countries or wars or sanctions have aggravated the difficulties in obtaining overseas high-quality projects. In 2020, China's dependence on foreign oil and natural gas will be 71.7% and 41.4% respectively. With the increasing domestic demand for oil and gas and limited output growth, the risk of oil and gas security will be affected by geopolitics for a long time.
3. Influenced by energy technology progress and policy guidance, since 2000, the proportion of clean energy consumption in China, such as natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, and optoelectronics, has been rising rapidly. By the end of 2021, the installed capacity of full caliber non fossil energy power generation will reach 1.12 billion kilowatts, an increase of 13.4% year on year, accounting for 47.0% of the total installed capacity, surpassing that of coal power for the first time in history. At the same time, scientific and technological innovation in the energy field has developed rapidly, and the research and development of core technologies of choke has been carried out in the whole industrial chain of hydrogen energy production, storage, transportation and processing, with a solid foundation for related industries. In particular, the Beijing Winter Olympic Games set an example for green and low-carbon applications in China and even the world by "lighting up the lights of Beijing with the wind of Zhangbei". All these have provided a good foundation for China's low-carbon energy transformation. In particular, in recent years, the country has successively issued the "Fourteenth Five Year Plan" Modern Energy System Plan, the Medium and Long Term Plan for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Industry (2021-2035), the Notice on the Implementation Plan for Promoting the High Quality Development of New Energy in the New Era and other documents, which has consolidated the institutional guarantee for energy transformation from the top-level design.
To sum up, to achieve carbon peak and carbon neutralization, we need to build a modern energy system, and China has the necessity and feasibility of energy system transformation. We believe that building a modern energy system:
In terms of development goals, we should diversify the initial energy (primary energy), get rid of the geographical constraints of fossil energy, and maintain energy strategic security; Protect the climate and environment by using efficient and low-carbon energy carriers; Promote industrial transformation and upgrading through energy technology innovation to achieve sustainable economic and social development.
At the core of development, focus on green electricity, green hydrogen and other clean low-carbon energy carriers suitable for diversified initial energy development, such as diversified sources, high efficiency and zero emission operation; Maximize the use of local renewable energy and reduce the impact of fossil energy price fluctuations; Adapt to the digital economy and intelligent technological progress, and drive the transformation and upgrading of various industries.
On the development path, adhere to the strategic attribute of energy, restore the attribute of energy commodity, and optimize the "integration of source, grid, load, storage and use". We will develop a comprehensive energy system with clean energy as the core, break the barriers of the original energy system, achieve coordination and complementarity of heterogeneous energy, and form a multi type market mechanism covering electricity trading, green trading, carbon trading, etc.
2 Difficulties, problems and challenges in building a modern energy system
In the survey, many enterprises and experts reported that the biggest problem facing the construction of a modern energy system is that under the existing technical conditions and institutional arrangements, there is a certain contradiction between the clean low-carbon security of energy and the sustainability of economic development.
On the one hand, hydropower, wind energy, solar energy and other renewable energy power generation are volatile and intermittent. It is necessary to improve the predictability and stability of power supply through scientific and technological innovation to meet the requirements for safe and stable operation of large-scale grid connection.
1. The short-term predictability of renewable energy is insufficient. The new energy represented by wind power and photovoltaic has the characteristics of intermittency, volatility and uncertainty, and its massive access brings great pressure to the reliable guarantee of energy and the safe operation of the system. The average absolute error of short-term wind power prediction in China is mostly between 6% and 18%, which is higher than that in developed wind power countries in Europe and the United States. The average absolute error of short-term wind power prediction in Portugal, Germany, the United States and other countries is below 12%.
2. It is necessary to solve the "network source coordination problem" and improve the system regulation capability. At present, the construction cycle of new energy projects is far shorter than that of power grid projects. If the power grid and power supply can not be planned and put into production synchronously, and the market mechanism can be used to absorb renewable energy synchronously, the problem of consuming renewable energy will be further aggravated. By the end of 2021, China's traditional flexible power supply accounted for only 6%, far below the level of developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan (46.6% in the United States, 47% in Italy and 37% in Japan in 2020).
3. In the process of low-carbon transformation of the power system, there will still be a power supply gap in the short term. For example, in 2021, under the multiple pressures of rising coal prices, instability of new energy power generation, and dual control, some provinces suddenly shut down the power grid, resulting in production stoppage and reduction, affecting the power consumption of residents and enterprises.
On the other hand, the value of renewable energy costs and benefits is misplaced. At present, renewable energy mainly benefits from power generation, but the value of low carbon is not fully reflected. The current institutional arrangements are not conducive to the development of renewable energy industry. Mainly reflected in:
1. Under the zero carbon scenario, with the rapid development of all kinds of power sources, especially new energy, power investment will remain at a high level. After the penetration rate of new energy exceeds 15%, the system cost (excluding station cost) enters the critical point of rapid growth. With the continuous improvement of new energy penetration rate, the marginal cost of access to the Internet will gradually decrease.
2. The current electricity price formation mechanism cannot fully reflect the low carbon value of renewable energy. The parity of new energy is not equal to parity utilization. Compared with conventional energy, the electricity price of new energy is relatively low, but it has a green premium that conventional energy does not have, that is, low carbon value, which cannot be well calculated and reflected by the current energy price formation mechanism.
The direct cause of this contradiction is that the power market mechanism is not perfect, which fails to fully reflect the comprehensive value of different initial energy, the trading rules are not unified, and there are market barriers for trans provincial and trans regional transactions. Distributed renewable energy is still difficult to effectively participate in the power market. The other reason is that the carbon trading market and green power market matched with the power market are still in the primary stage, and the trading system and system that adapt to the "double carbon" strategy and meet China's national conditions have not been formed, and the market resource allocations has not played a guiding role. The national carbon market is still at a relatively early stage of exploration, with immature business models and imperfect evalsuation systems. At present, only the power industry participates in the carbon spot market, and the main trade industry needs to be further covered; The market carbon emission quota is abundant, which is difficult to effectively stimulate market liquidity and stimulate energy conservation and carbon reduction of enterprises; The low price of carbon quota trading cannot highlight the scarcity of carbon emission rights; The products are single and carbon quota derivatives are lacking. On the whole, the carbon market activity is still in a relatively low state.
At the same time, China is also faced with other problems in building a modern energy system.
First, the guiding mechanism for green transformation of energy consumption is not sound enough. 1. The rationality and accuracy of the "dual control" assessment need to be improved. The growth rate of GDP is the expected target, while the control of energy consumption intensity is the constraint target. Local governments have prominent contradictions in how to coordinate the relationship between dual control of energy consumption and economic growth. Energy statistics depend on the statistics department, which lacks the means of checking and monitoring. The rules and system of carbon emission statistics have not been established in the statistics department. 2. Industrial precision energy control level needs to be improved. In many places, the energy control assessment fails to take into account the upstream and downstream collaboration of the industrial chain, especially the collaboration between upstream and downstream enterprises across regions. The end products are often difficult to produce normally because of the lack of upstream and downstream capacity supply. 3. The "carbon charge" in some regions affects the realization of the "double carbon" goal. Some places believe that it is a window period to reach the carbon peak by 2030, which is the last time to deploy some high energy consumption projects, in order to make room for economic growth as much as possible. They did not fully consider the difficulty and investment brought by the increase in total carbon emissions caused by "carbon peak rush" to the realization of carbon neutrality goals in the future.
Second, key technologies need to be tackled, and the channel from technology to industry still needs to be further unblocked. 1. The maturity and stability of flexible DC key technologies, such as DC circuit breakers and DC transformers, need to be further improved. The operation criteria and protection criteria of DC power grid need to be unified and standardized. In general, a lot of scientific and technological exploration is needed to realize the large-scale application of DC power grid. 2. The hydrogen energy industry as a whole is still in the market introduction period, and the key components such as ion exchange membrane, carbon paper, catalyst, air compressor and high-pressure hydrogen storage bottle still need to be purchased from developed countries. Relevant technologies need to be further broken through, and it is urgent to promote the rapid development of the whole industrial chain technology of "production, storage, transportation and application" of hydrogen. 3. The promotion of green mining technology and the comprehensive utilization of resources need to be strengthened. The utilization rate of coalbed methane and mine water is not high, and the water conservation mining of coal gangue, green mining technology and demonstration project construction have not been effectively promoted.
Third, opportunities and challenges coexist in international cooperation, and advanced experience needs to be systematically analyzed and used for reference. 1. International energy cooperation faces challenges. China has become the largest energy importer in the world. The relationship between energy and finance is increasingly close in the international energy market. The control of the international energy financial market is basically in the hands of a few large countries. The competition among major countries and sovereignty disputes have had a negative impact on energy cooperation. 2. The "the Belt and Road" green construction is both an opportunity and a challenge. The international political environment is becoming increasingly complex, and the investment risk of energy industry projects is high. The coordination mechanism of international energy cooperation is not perfect, and the progress of the project is lower than expected. 3. Renewable energy power consumption and new power system construction require systematic analysis and reference to international advanced experience. EU countries have explored flexible transmission networks, technologies to deal with power generation fluctuations, and cross-border grid cooperation for nearly 20 years, compared with China, there is a large space for development.
3 Suggestions on promoting the construction of modern energy system
To build a modern energy system, we need to take a multi pronged approach and optimize the layout from all aspects of supply, demand and circulation, namely, source, network, load, storage and use. We need to rely on scientific and technological innovation and institutional and institutional innovation to drive the development of a modern energy system. We need to strengthen high-level international energy cooperation and comprehensively promote the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutralization.
3.1 Deepen energy supply side reform
Facing the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutralization, we should first establish before breaking, base on China's natural resource endowment, and ensure energy security; Based on the development and utilization of clean energy, we should gradually break the dependence on traditional energy, adhere to the priority of developing and using renewable energy, and moderately develop a diversified energy supply system supplemented by low-carbon energy such as natural gas and nuclear energy, so as to transform the dynamic balance of eliminating the other's advantages into a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient modern energy system.
1. Based on China's natural resource endowment and national conditions, focus on the fundamental role of coal power, promote carbon reduction and efficiency enhancement of coal power, and orderly reduce coal consumption. Continuously improve the comprehensive utilization efficiency of coal, coordinate the upstream and downstream layout of coal chemical industry, couple renewable energy and hydrogen energy, promote the high-end, diversified and low-carbon development of coal chemical industry, increase the total amount control of pollutants, and promote clean combustion technology.
2. Based on the development and utilization of clean energy, focus on electric energy and hydrogen energy, and build a clean, low-carbon, safe, efficient, scientific, dynamic and predictable energy supply system. Develop hydropower and biomass energy according to local conditions, and accelerate the development of wind power and solar power generation; Moderately develop nuclear energy, deepen the development of marine energy, geothermal energy, etc., and deeply implement the demonstration construction of energy utilization integration system that is complementary to multiple energy sources and coupled with application scenarioses (rural areas, islands and reefs, marine ranches, plateaus, etc.). Promote the natural full load of renewable energy power generation, realize large-scale and long-term energy storage on the renewable energy supply side, and deploy projects such as sodium ion battery energy storage power stations, compressed air energy storage, hydrogen generation energy storage power stations in regions rich in photovoltaic and wind power. We will quickly implement the national hydrogen energy industry development plan, and take hydrogen substitution as an important path to achieve carbon neutrality in key areas such as transportation, power generation, energy storage, and chemical industry.
3. While continuously improving the efficiency of water, wind and photoelectric, we should focus on improving the accuracy of weather forecast and lean management of wind and photoelectric fields in view of their volatility, intermittency and other problems, and at the same time, we should provide a certain energy storage capacity to ensure the stability of power supply.
3.2 Promoting the transformation of energy demand side
Taking energy conservation and efficient utilization as the direction, combining promotional policies with binding policies, and taking carbon footprint as the starting point, we will steadily promote the energy demand side transformation, and guide the energy supply side structural reform through the demand side transformation.
1. Optimize and adjust the industrial structure and reduce energy consumption and emissions per unit GDP. By improving environmental protection requirements, we will curb the high energy consumption and high emission industries that seek output value by scale, increase the layout of green and low-carbon industries such as semiconductor, electronic information, high-end equipment, green chemicals, data services and other low energy consumption high-tech industries, and optimize the industrial structure. Promote the green upgrading of industry and agriculture, improve the green development level of the service industry, expand the green environmental protection industry, and accelerate the transformation and upgrading of foreign trade enterprises to a green low-carbon economy. Flexible use of market-oriented means such as energy contract management to promote the implementation of energy conservation and emission reduction projects.
2. Take carbon footprint and carbon sink measurement as the starting point to build a new carbon emission assessment framework system suitable for the modern energy system. First, rely on meteorological earth remote sensing technology to monitor the carbon emissions in all links of the industrial chain, and conduct quantitative, objective and real-time monitoring and traceability of carbon emissions, spatial distribution and intensity, so as to strengthen the scientific and technological support for carbon emissions statistical accounting. The second is to give full play to the role of power data in providing information and big data empowerment for carbon emission measurement, assessment and carbon trading. Vigorously implement the construction of "5G+smart grid+energy storage", accelerate the creation of a digital twin grid covering the whole process of the grid and the whole link of production, realize the panoramic view and holographic judgment of energy allocations, and improve the efficiency of energy allocations.
3. Improve the marginal effect in industrial transformation and upgrading. The production capacity, sales volume and retention of new energy passenger vehicles in China have been leading the world for many years, which can give full play to the energy consumption and storage characteristics of pure electric vehicles. Through two-way interaction between vehicle and network, we can "cut the peak and fill the valley" for the urban power grid and improve the peak regulation efficiency of the power grid. The carbon emissions of commercial vehicles in China account for 50% of the carbon emissions of road traffic. It is suggested to expand the demonstration application of fuel cell vehicles and commercial vehicles, coordinate the research and development of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy preparation, storage, transportation and filling systems, strengthen the regional joint demonstration application of hydrogen fuel cell commercial vehicles across provinces, cities and cities, and promote the road traffic to take the lead in achieving carbon neutrality in the transformation and upgrading by first building, then breaking.
4. Create a clean and low-carbon social atmosphere. Promote the electrification and intelligent transformation of consumer terminals, guide residents to use energy in a refined way, save energy, establish a carbon account and carbon credit system for residents, continue to deepen energy conservation in key areas such as industry, construction, transportation and public institutions, form an effective incentive and constraint mechanism for energy conservation and carbon reduction, promote the pilot demonstration of new energy cities, and create a new form of green and low-carbon urban life. Combine with the construction of "Healthy China" to develop sports power generation and energy storage equipment. We will strengthen the publicity and popularization of green and low-carbon scientific and technological knowledge, new development concepts and policies, strengthen the construction of energy interdisciplinary disciplines and personnel training, and lay a good social foundation for the realization of the "dual carbon" goal.
3.3 Enhance energy circulation efficiency
Strengthen the infrastructure construction in the energy circulation link, effectively improve the capacity of new energy consumption, regulation and service guarantee, effectively meet the needs of new energy users by continuously improving the circulation efficiency, effectively guide the construction and rational layout of new energy by transmitting demand information to the supply side, and effectively drive the energy supply side reform and demand side transformation by improving the quality and efficiency of the circulation link, so as to promote the construction of a modern energy system as a whole.
1. Strengthen the construction of ultra-high voltage and supporting power grids, promote the integration of ultra-high voltage flexible DC and AC technologies, and the power transmission and distribution system where large power grids, regional networks, and micro grids coexist. We will optimize the layout of grid infrastructure development, tap the potential of trans regional and trans provincial power transmission channels, and ensure the balance of power and electricity. The power system shall be comprehensively upgraded with the user as the center. Accelerate the investment in urban and rural power grids, focus on the construction of active distribution networks, and strengthen the interaction and optimization of "integration of source, grid, load and storage". Focusing on industrial parks and new urban areas, the pilot project of comprehensive energy utilization of micro grid will be carried out.
2. Increase the coordination ability of grid sources, improve the transmission efficiency and intelligent level of the grid, and improve the absorption capacity of renewable energy. First, increase the research on privacy computing technologies that adapt to the characteristics of energy and power data, such as strong real-time and high precision, promote the opening of energy data barriers, and promote the sharing of energy data. Second, accelerate the development and application of domestic industrial chips and control systems, deepen research and establish an intelligent active defense network security system, and improve energy network protection capabilities. The third is to develop and promote large-scale low-cost energy storage, smart grid, virtual power plant and other technologies, build a technical system of water, wind, light and other resources utilization renewable power generation terminal energy optimization and matching, and develop relevant technologies to support the flexible and stable operation of a high proportion of renewable energy grids. The fourth is to develop digital energy technology, focusing on tackling power specific chips, micro sensors, edge computing, advanced power communication, power safety supervision and protection and other technologies, improving the observable, measurable and controllable level of the energy system with digital technology, and creating an autonomous and controllable core equipment system for the whole business chain. We will consolidate digital infrastructure, promote the deep integration of power and computing power, and promote the construction of a "three in one" digital ecological platform for data flow, energy flow, and value flow in the energy sector.
3. Accelerate the development of new energy storage and improve the price and market mechanism of energy storage. Around the different service functions of energy storage in different application scenarioses, including auxiliary power services, peak and valley price, spot market, demand side response, capacity price, two-part price and other aspects of energy storage price innovation, actively guide the development of new energy storage industry towards marketization and scale. Explore the construction of new energy storage power stations at the grid side, user side and the pilot park of incremental distribution network reform, and improve the system's flexible peak and frequency regulation capability. With the battery manufacturing industry as the link, develop the new energy vehicle industry and the mobiles/fixed energy storage device industry interactively, and enhance the toughness of the industrial chain. In Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and other provinces with strong energy dependence, we will vigorously promote the construction and technical research of solid state lithium-ion battery energy storage power stations, sodium ion battery energy storage power stations, pumping power stations, hydrogen generation energy storage, compressed air energy storage power stations and other projects.
4. Promote rural energy reform and rural power grid transformation in combination with rural revitalization. Over the years, China has implemented the energy contract management system, which has strongly promoted the development of distributed micro grid with new energy as the main body. In the construction of new countryside, we have strengthened the construction of biomass energy, household photovoltaic, decentralized wind power and rural regional micro grid, helping rural revitalization. At the same time, it is necessary to combine rural revitalization with the development of rural renewable energy, the development of rural green power bases and carbon sink bases, innovate corresponding models and formats, and build rural areas into a production base of green power, green fuel and green materials, thus feeding back the green and low-carbon development of cities.
3.4 Promote the reform of modern energy and electricity market system
Since the reform and opening up, China has gradually established coal, oil, natural gas and other energy markets, including futures and spot markets in line with international standards. The current focus is to innovate a new power system and mechanism that is suitable for the high proportion of renewable energy consumption, and the power using enterprises choose the power supply form according to their own cost-benefit characteristics. By giving play to the role of a promising government and an effective market, a long-term mechanism for building a modern energy system will be formed.
1. Expand the scope on the basis of reform measures such as self use of distributed renewable energy power generation in the previous stage, surplus Internet access, and direct power purchase by large users, promote the interconnection of power supply, demand, and transmission, build a more open, transparent, unified and open power market, expand the scope of direct power purchase by power users from power enterprises, and enable small and medium-sized enterprises and modern service industries to directly purchase power from power generation enterprises, Including direct purchase of electricity from renewable energy power generation enterprises. Accelerate the establishment of spot market, auxiliary service market and capacity compensation mechanism, establish an ultra short term intraday power trading market adapted to the characteristics of new energy power generation as soon as possible, shorten the trading cycle to 15 minutes, and determine 5 minutes in advance to ensure the smooth progress of the transaction. We will improve the distributed energy trading mechanism. Loosen the system constraints in the power distribution field, and improve the transmission and distribution price formation mechanism. Support the development of the park's incremental distribution network, local power grid and micro grid as independent market entities. Focus on improving the business model in combination with the characteristics of power distribution, support the use of real estate investment trust funds (REITs) and other tools to revitalize distribution assets, and support the use of virtual power plants to form groups to participate in market competition.
2. On the basis of adhering to the strategic attribute of energy, restoring the commodity attribute of energy is a profound and long-term institutional reform and innovation. The purpose is to establish a user centered, demand oriented system for market resource allocations. Actively promote the legislative process of the Energy Law. At the same time, in the process of implementation, we should attach importance to exploring the mutual benefit mechanism between power grid enterprises and renewable energy enterprises, establish a grid connection mechanism that both encourages distributed energy and gives consideration to the interests of power grid enterprises, encourage power grid enterprises, power selling enterprises and power users to support and balance each other's benefits, and realize the construction of modern power market through scientific and technological innovation and system reform. It is suggested to adopt the method of "enterprises first, then residents" to ensure the basic livelihood needs. Where conditions permit, it is also possible to pilot the purchasing agent mechanism to encourage residents to save electricity, gradually establish green electricity procurement and carbon credit system for residents, and advocate green and low-carbon life.
3. Establish a green power procurement system and accelerate the expansion of the carbon sink market, encourage power users to reduce carbon consumption through the use of green power, encourage new energy power generation enterprises to realize the value of power supply and carbon reduction through efficient and accurate operation, and force the transformation and upgrading of traditional energy. We will promote the all-round and open development of the carbon exchange market and accelerate the expansion of the carbon sink market. First, under the guidance of the carbon budget under the national carbon peak and carbon neutralization target, we should effectively set the total quota of the carbon market and the total quota of the sector, and give full play to the important role of the market mechanism in promoting energy conservation and carbon reduction. Second, start the paid carbon quota distribution mechanism as soon as possible, reflect the scarcity of carbon emission space, and stimulate enterprises to reduce carbon emissions through quality improvement and efficiency improvement. Third, take the national carbon trading market as the carrier to activate the price discovery function of the carbon market and reduce transaction costs. Fourth, promote the innovation of carbon finance business, explore and develop corresponding carbon finance products based on carbon emission quotas and national certified emission reductions, and improve the commercialization of carbon trading finance.
3.5 Strengthen energy technology support
Building a modern energy system is not only an energy revolution, but also a scientific and technological revolution in the energy field. Strengthening self-reliance in science and technology in the energy field is the key to building a modern energy system, ensuring energy security and achieving the goal of "double carbon".
1. Effectively improve the ability of digital weather forecast. We will encourage innovation and entrepreneurship to meet the needs of new energy enterprises for meteorological services, improve the accuracy of station level meteorological forecasts from short to medium term to day ahead and from real-time to 15 minutes, ensure the optimal operation of the new power system, and strive to achieve day ahead (futures) and intraday (spot) power market transactions. Strengthen the theoretical research on meteorological change to provide forward-looking thinking for understanding the main causes of climate change.
2. Strengthen the innovation and research of hydrogen energy technology and explore the construction of modern hydrogen energy system. First, strengthen the innovation and research and development of hydrogen energy technology. Research on special materials for hydrogen production by water electrolysis, such as ion exchange membrane, carbon paper, catalyst, high current density, low amount of precious metal/non precious metal membrane electrode, bipolar plate, porous diffusion layer, etc. (PEM/AEM), high pressure and high current density water electrolysis equipment, pyrolysis/photolysis and other new technologies for hydrogen production, and direct synthesis gas/ammonia production by electrolysis. The second is to promote the demonstration of urban (cluster) hydrogen energy security infrastructure. In order to build hydrogen storage facilities and hydrogen energy emergency power supply facilities in key cities (clusters), cities with certain hydrogen energy application foundation can be selected for demonstration, such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Yantai, etc. The third is to carry out demonstration application of multi energy complementary zero discharge energy supply test system, box power supply demonstration application of voltage regulating station, pipeline hydrogen injection demonstration application, and promote distributed energy supply application. Fourth, further promote hydrogen energy substitution in the transportation field and expand downstream users of hydrogen energy, such as bus companies, logistics companies, vehicle manufacturers, etc.
3. Vigorously promote the research and development of cutting-edge technologies such as new physical energy storage and electrochemical energy storage, and promote diversified and multi field applications. Accelerate the breakthrough of key technologies such as high energy density, high safety, low cost and long-term storage, improve the standard system of electrochemical energy storage technology, build a renewable energy storage technology system of "long-term design, low carbon manufacturing, safe operation and maintenance, and green recovery", build a regional energy storage technology innovation institute and key laboratory, and create a new energy storage industry ecosystem.
4. Strengthen the research and development of new transmission and distribution technologies and core equipment. In the field of renewable energy active support grid technology, the focus is on the research of basic theories such as wind power generation grid connection active support, ad hoc network, local 100% new energy power system, etc; In the field of new transmission technology, focus on the key technologies of AC/DC ultra-high voltage transmission and flexible grid interconnection, focus on solving the technical needs of long-distance power transmission in large new energy bases, new collection and networking of offshore wind power, and friendly grid connection of high penetration distributed power sources, and vigorously support the research and development of high-end power energy equipment; In the field of power grid safe and efficient operation technology, the research focuses on the basic theories of new energy power system fault mechanism and dynamic security control under the "dual carbon" target, multi-layer source network load storage panoramic measurement, flexible and intelligent regulation, etc. Increase the construction of flexible DC transmission network, distribution network and various types of user DC power supply systems, and further promote the application of domestic power semiconductor devices in engineering and the development of power semiconductor technology and industry relying on major projects. Artificial intelligence, big data and cloud computing are used to achieve low-carbon, efficient, safe and stable operation of China's diversified power systems and large-scale power grids.
5. Accelerate the breakthrough of key technologies and engineering application demonstration of carbon dioxide capture, utilization and storage (CCUS), and develop new materials and processes for carbon dioxide adsorption and capture. Vigorously develop biomass energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology, deploy direct air capture (DAC) technology in advance, increase support for the third generation of biological refining (CO2 to X) technology, vigorously develop and promote new coal based materials, and develop clean coal utilization technology.
3.6 Strengthening international cooperation in high-level energy
There are some advanced experiences and lessons in the world that are worth analyzing and learning from. Strengthening international cooperation in energy governance, especially advocating green and low-carbon development with the "the Belt and Road" countries, is conducive to enhancing China's voice in the international energy field, participating in and guiding the formulation of international rules, and promoting the construction of China's modern energy system.
1. Learn, analyze and learn from the experience and lessons of Germany and other advanced European countries in building a clean energy system, especially in the construction of market mechanisms, to deepen international cooperation in energy science and technology. First, the carbon neutralization and energy transformation plan draws on the German model of sustainable growth of green GDP to continuously improve energy efficiency, vigorously develop new energy, comprehensively promote green buildings with low energy consumption and high energy efficiency, develop the coupling system of heating/cooling, transportation and electricity, and implement the energy structure and consumption behavior revolution. Second, in the aspect of power market construction, learn from the establishment of the electricity spot/futures trading market in Germany, develop the flexible service market of wind power generation, and develop smart grid and power storage technology based on big data, so as to promote the increase of the proportion of renewable energy capacity and reduce the occurrence of light, wind and water abandonment. Third, in terms of renewable energy development policies/subsidies, gradually reduce the amount of subsidies through market-oriented methods such as grid connected electricity price bidding, and use market means to make renewable energy more benign competition and sustainable development, so as to avoid "one size fits all".
2. Strengthen the joint construction of green and low-carbon development of "the Belt and Road" countries, and open up new space for "the Belt and Road" energy cooperation. Relying on the "the Belt and Road" national strategic plan, help relevant countries formulate energy development strategies, propose an integrated technical solution of "strategy first+technology transformation+business model", realize the transformation and output of scientific and technological achievements and the import and use of overseas resources through international cooperation, and open up new space for overseas energy cooperation; Focus on promoting the "going global" of Chinese enterprises in new energy fields such as biomass energy, wind power and solar energy; Build a comprehensive energy base for ASEAN countries, and actively promote power interconnection with ASEAN countries; Actively face the Middle East, establish a green energy base of photovoltaic power generation+hydrogen production+petroleum refining energy, and realize the international model of renewable energy+new energy cooperation; Strengthen regional low-carbon cooperation, and expand the breadth and depth of cooperation with countries along the "the Belt and Road" in green production capacity, green capital, green trade and other aspects through green investment, zero carbon, low-carbon technology trade and other ways.
3. Actively participate in the formulation of international standards and rules. First, actively participate in bilateral and multilateral trade agreement negotiations. Strengthen cooperation and policy coordination with other developing countries in green and low-carbon development, international climate governance and other aspects, actively promote fair and reasonable distribution of emission reduction responsibilities, focus on participating in the development of international standards and rules for "carbon footprint" tracking and carbon sink measurement, and prevent these rules from expanding into new "green" investment and trade barriers. Second, strengthen international cooperation and exchanges. Support domestic research institutes, universities and enterprises to establish relevant alliances, strengthen cooperation with foreign policy research institutions, and strengthen communication and international publicity through international forums, official dialogues, academic exchanges and other means. Third, actively participate in the construction of the global oil and gas trade and market system and the formulation of relevant trading rules, accelerate the construction of the global natural gas trade system, improve the functions of the international oil and gas operation center, and gradually improve China's pricing voice in the global oil and gas market by relying on Shanghai and Chongqing oil and gas trading centers.
This article was published in the fifth issue of China Development in 2022. Due to space limitations, the notes are omitted.